Looking at United States and world nuclear stockpiles, it is easy to see why there are widely divergent views about where we are more than 70 years into the nuclear bomb era. American use of atomic bombs to destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 remains controversial. One camp, representing the majority position, argues that the bombs ended the most destructive war in history and prevented huge casualties from an invasion of the Japanese homeland. The opposing camp argues that Japan was on the verge of surrender already and that the bombs were unnecessary. Either way, both camps largely agree that the beginning of the atomic era launched the most destructive arms race in history.